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Marine Mammal Protection Act

Conservation Council for Hawaii v. National Marine Fisheries Service

A district court held that the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) violated the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), the ESA, and NEPA when it authorized the U.S. Navy to take large numbers of marine mammals, some of which are...

Humane Society v. Pritzker

The Ninth Circuit, in an unpublished opinion, held that the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) did not violate the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) or NEPA when it authorized Idaho, Oregon, and Washington to kill up to 85...

Polar Bear Endangered Species Act Listing

The D.C. Circuit upheld FWS's determination that sport-hunted polar bear "trophies" may no longer be imported into the United States under the Marine Mammals Protection Act (MMPA) as of the effective date of the ESA listing rule for the...

Center for Biological Diversity v. Salazar

The Ninth Circuit upheld FWS regulations issued under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) that authorize the incidental take of polar bears and Pacific walruses resulting from oil and gas exploration activities in the Chukchi Sea...

Humane Society of the United States v. Locke

The Ninth Circuit held that the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) violated the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), but not NEPA, when it authorized Idaho, Oregon, and Washington to kill up to 85 California sea lions annually at...

The Brief and Unexpected Preemption of Hawaii's Humpback Whale Laws: The Authority of the States to Protect Endangered Marine Mammals Under the ESA and the MMPA

Editors' Summary: Humpback whales are endangered marine mammals, protected by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and the ESA. Hawai'i's seasonal thrill craft ban in humpback habitat provides additional protection. In 2004, a...

The Collision of the Environment and Trade: The GATT Tuna/Dolphin Decision

Editors' Summary: On September 3, 1991, a three-member dispute resolution panel formed by the signatories to the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) held that a U.S. embargo on Mexican tuna and tuna products harvested in...