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Constitutionality

United States v. Apollo Energies, Inc.

The Tenth Circuit held that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) applies a strict liability standard to the taking or killing of migratory birds but that it requires a defendant to proximately cause the statute's violation for the...

United States v. Hardman

The court holds that the federal government failed to show how limiting permits for eagle feathers only to members of federally recognized tribes is the least restrictive means of advancing the government's interests in preserving eagle...

United States v. Hardman

The court holds that a Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) regulation does not violate the Free Exercise or Establishment Clauses of the U.S. Constitution and, therefore, affirms an individual's conviction for possessing eagle feathers...