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Water

Functional Equivalency? Assessing Groundwater Discharges Under County of Maui

The U.S. Supreme Court issued its ruling in County of Maui v. Hawaii Wildlife Fund on April 23, 2020. Until then, there was a split among the circuit courts as to whether discharges to navigable waters through groundwater...

How the Trump Administration Eased Destruction of the Nation's Wetlands and Streams

On June 22, 2020, the Navigable Waters Protection Rule (NWPR), the most significant rollback of the jurisdictional scope of the Clean Water Act (CWA) since its passage almost 50 years ago, went into effect. Supported by the American...

Salmon and the Clean Water Act: An Unfinished Agenda

Salmon require cool temperatures to migrate and reproduce. The Clean Water Act (CWA) requires states to develop and implement water quality standards sufficient to produce fishable waters. Nearly a half-century after its 1972 enactment...

Marine Plastic Pollution: How Global Extended Producer Responsibility Can Help

Nearly nine million tons of plastic waste flow into our oceans each year, arriving in many ways—ranging from polluted rivers and waterways to the wastewater from our washing machines. Once in the ocean, this...

U.S. Aquaculture’s Promise: Policy Pronouncements and Litigation Problems

On May 7, President Donald Trump issued Executive Order No. 13921, Promoting American Seafood Competitiveness and Economic Growth, stating that it is U.S. policy to “facilitate aquaculture projects through regulatory transparency and...

Jumping Through Hoopa: Complicating the Clean Water Act for the States

Section 401 certification and permit conditioning under the Clean Water Act is one of the most significant tools for states to influence federally permitted activities involving discharges into navigable waters. However, states are...

Compliance Models for Off-Grid Wastewater Treatment and Reuse

Throughout the world, people struggle to gain access to stable sources of clean water. While there are increasingly innovative solutions being developed, many communities simply do not have access to efficient, centralized wastewater...

Federalism's Blind Spots: The Crisis of Small Drinking Water Systems

Drinking water contamination in Flint, Michigan, has garnered much-needed nationwide attention, but such contamination is neither isolated, nor a primarily urban problem. A hidden water crisis is straining thousands of smaller...

Technology and the Seas: Enforcement in Marine Protected Areas

Established in over 65 countries and territories, marine protected areas (MPAs) embody a range of habitats, enable the provision of fundamental ecosystem services, protect marine biodiversity and cultural resources, and provide spaces...

Overboard? The Complexity of Traditional TMDL Calculations Under the Clean Water Act

The Clean Water Act (CWA) requires states to calculate total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) of individual pollutants that impair their waters. But the means by which TMDLs are calculated are imprecise, because (1) it is difficult to...

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