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Technology and the Seas: Enforcement in Marine Protected Areas

Established in over 65 countries and territories, marine protected areas (MPAs) embody a range of habitats, enable the provision of fundamental ecosystem services, protect marine biodiversity and cultural resources, and provide spaces...

Overboard? The Complexity of Traditional TMDL Calculations Under the Clean Water Act

The Clean Water Act (CWA) requires states to calculate total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) of individual pollutants that impair their waters. But the means by which TMDLs are calculated are imprecise, because (1) it is difficult to...

CWA In-Lieu Fee Mitigation: Project and Programmatic Risks

In 2008, after prompting by the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) issued a regulation governing compensatory mitigation under the Clean Water Act (CWA). The...

Modernizing Management of Offshore Oil and Gas in Federal Waters

Offshore drilling has been thrust back into the spotlight by the Trump Administration’s focus on “energy dominance.” While it is unlikely that leasing will take place in all areas included in the Administration’s proposed plan, its...

The Use of PFAS at Industrial and Military Facilities: Technical, Regulatory, and Legal Issues

Contamination of drinking water by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has garnered much attention in recent years. PFAS include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and PFAS exposures and risks can...

Ten Years of the Compensatory Mitigation Rule: Reflections on Progress and Opportunities

In 2008, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) overhauled federal policy governing how impacts to wetlands, streams, and other aquatic resources authorized under §404 of the...

Natural Resource Damages, Mitigation Banking, and the Watershed Approach

This Article examines potential opportunities for state and tribal natural resource trustees to integrate restoration and compensation for natural resource damages with other ecological restoration programs and coordinating with...

Practicable Alternatives for Wetlands Development Under the Clean Water Act

Section 404(b) of the Clean Water Act authorizes a “practicable alternatives” requirement for dredge and fill permits. EPA has adopted guidelines that set out and interpret that requirement, but the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has...

Improving Water Quality and Ecosystem Health in California's Marine Managed Areas

California’s marine conservation regime is a model for the world, and includes a statewide network of marine protected areas and other marine managed areas (MMAs). But management authority remains distributed across multiple government...

The Judicial Contribution to Water Justice: The Australian Experience

The Brasilia Declaration of Judges on Water Justice, adopted at the eighth World Water Forum in Brasilia on March 21, 2018, recognizes that water justice involves environmental stewardship, intergenerational equity, sustainable...

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