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Water quality standards, §303

Key Issues in Setting Water Quality Standards

When setting water quality standards (WQS) for surface water, every state in the nation is faced with the question of “how clean is clean enough?” The standard set by the state is important to citizens, who rely upon a high level of...

Nutrients in the Courts: Cooperative Federalism Entangles EPA Actions on Nitrogen and Phosphorus

For over a decade, the regulation of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) under the Clean Water Act has been a focus of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) attention. Now, it is a focus of litigation. Hypoxia in the Gulf...

Can TMDLs Serve as ARARs?

The CWA and CERCLA were passed to clean up the environment and protect public health. Both statutes required Congress to set a standard for cleanliness. Under
CERCLA, Congress determined that Superfund sites had to meet applicable...

The Clean Water Act TMDL Program V: Aftershock and Prelude

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of redesigning the Clean Water Act's (CWA's) total maximum daily load (TMDL) program.1 Section 303 of the Act requires states and, if necessary,...