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Toxic Substances

The Use of PFAS at Industrial and Military Facilities: Technical, Regulatory, and Legal Issues

Contamination of drinking water by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has garnered much attention in recent years. PFAS include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and PFAS exposures and risks can...

Legal Tools to Reduce Radon’s Risk: An Evaluation of Mandatory Radon-Resistant New Construction in Building Codes

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), residential exposure to radon gas represents the second-leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers in the United States....

Preventing Toxic Lead Exposure Through Drinking Water Using Point-of-Use Filtration

Lead exposure through drinking water is an acute and persistent problem in the United States. The Flint, Michigan, water crisis brought national attention to this problem, but every city is at risk where lead-containing materials...

Slow Threats and Environmental Policy

Some threats to the environment, like acid rain and stratospheric ozone depletion, emerged fairly rapidly, and abrupt threats like an oil or toxic chemical spill demand an immediate response. But most environmental problems have the...

FIFRA at 40: The Need for Felonies for Pesticide Crimes

In 1996, Congress abandoned a seven-year effort by consecutive Republican and Democratic administrations to increase FIFRA’s misdemeanor penalties for criminal violations to the felony levels provided under the other major federal...

National and Multinational Strategies for Radioactive Waste Disposal

Today, nuclear technology is used in a variety of applications, including energy, medicine, research, and agriculture. These applications produce waste that is radioactive and, therefore, harmful to humans for a certain period of time....

Recent Developments in Oil Pollution Act Litigation

Congress enacted OPA in 1990 following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, to strengthen the federal government’s ability to prevent and respond to oil spills, to establish financial resources to aid response, and to raise standards...

Toxic Substances Control Act Reform: What's Happening, and What's Next?

Betting on Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) reform before the 2016 presidential election is anything but a sure thing. While most remain optimistic, with each passing day, the window of opportunity is narrowed. One possibility is...

Pesticides, Water Quality, and the Public Trust Doctrine

The public trust doctrine is an ancient legal principle undergoing a modern resurgence. Under it, governments hold certain natural resources in trust for the benefit of present and future generations, and have a judicially enforceable...

The Price of Reform: Models for Financing a Toxic Substances Control Act 2.0

At the start of the 114th Congress, lawmakers from both parties in the House and the Senate have voiced support for reviewing and reforming the 39-year old Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Assuming that the diverse TSCA stakeholder...

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