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South America

Mining in Colombia and Environmental Justice: How the “Popular Consultation” Process Works in Practice

This Article examines how the Latin American procedure of “popular consultation” has been used as a mechanism for resisting the development of an open-pit gold mine in Colombia, and analyzes how Colombian communities are using the...

Building Carbon Rights Infrastructure With REDD+ Incentives: A Multi-Scale Analysis in the Peruvian Amazon

Payments to avoid deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries have emerged as a key international strategy. Countries that have the greatest potential to host these market-based mechanisms are often characterized by...

Complexo Madeira: Environmental Licensing for Large- Scale Hydropower in Brazil

Hydropower is often considered a climate-friendly solution to energy needs. Brazil has elected to construct a major hydroelectric project in the Amazon region: Complexo Madeira. A case study of Complexo Madeira...

Sustainable Consumption Governance in the Amazon

Tropical deforestation is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, estimated to contribute as much as 25% of global emissions. In Brazil, which is reported to be the fourth-largest GHG emitter, deforestation causes about 75% of...