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Risk Assessment

Soil Ingestion Estimation in Children and Adults: A Dominant Influence in Site Specific Risk Assessment

Editors' Summary: Over the past couple of decades, as awareness of hazardous waste contamination has grown, the exposure of children and adults to hazardous wastes via ingestion of contaminated soil has emerged as a dominant concern...

A Single Exposure to Many Carcinogens Can Cause Cancer

Editors' Summary: This Dialogue addresses whether a single exposure to a carcinogenic agent can cause cancer. Using a database that contains nearly 5,000 studies that have assessed the ability of a single dose of a chemical to cause...

The Tiered Approach to Corrective Action Objectives and the Site Remediation Program in Illinois

Editors' Summary: In mid-1997, the Illinois Pollution Control Board promulgated two rules that will affect the way contaminated sites are cleaned up in the state: the Tiered Approach to Corrective Action Objectives (TACO) rule and...

Hormesis Revisited: New Insights Concerning the Biological Effects of Low-Dose Exposures to Toxins

One of the most fundamental tenets of toxicology is that "the dose determines the poison." This simple phrase provides the basis for the belief that all agents—chemicals and physical phenomena that are capable of producing some effect—...

Treating Uncertainty as Risk: The Next Step in the Evolution of Environmental Regulation

Editors' Summary: This Article presents an argument that EPA's use of reference concentrations (RfCs) in risk assessments, if upheld by the courts, will dramatically change the nature of health-based regulation. In a background...

Regulation of Radiological and Chemical Carcinogens: Current Steps Toward Risk Harmonization

Editors' Summary: Until recently, the regulation of chemical carcinogens and the regulation of radiological carcinogens developed independently. Different governmental agencies operating under different statutory directives were...

The Environment and the Contract

The 104th Congress opened with great attention to the Republican "Contract With America" (the Contract), which the House leadership promised would pass the House of Representatives within the first 100 days. The Contract was first...

Risk and the New Rules of Decisionmaking: The Need for a Single Risk Target

New rules are emerging to change the way the government makes decisions about cleanup of hazardous waste sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund).1...