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International

Commerce in the Chaos: Bananas, Charcoal, Fisheries, and Conflict in Somalia

This chapter examines how, over the course of nearly 20 years, the production and trade of three natural resources has contributed to the ongoing conflict in Somalia and could ultimately contribute to its resolution. While this use of...

Building or Spoiling Peace? Lessons From the Management of High-Value Natural Resources

The management of high-value natural resources in post-conflict situations depends, among other things, on the context, including the causes and trajectory of the conflict; the characteristics of the natural resources in question and...

Citizen-Friendly Approaches to Environmental Governance

Editors' Summary: Numerous commentators have urged that government increase opportunities for citizen participation as a way to advance a variety of public policy goals (enhancing government legitimacy, promoting more informed...

Time to Get Real: The Necessity of Legal Accountability for Responsible Transnational Commerce

Editor's Summary: Guaranteeing a greener, more humane, transnational commerce will require new approaches from government, international bodies, civil society, and corporations. The challenges posed by national sovereignty, corruption,...

Annual Review of Chinese Environmental Law Developments: 2011

In 2011, China began its Twelfth Five-Year Plan. The Plan includes both new and revised rules and goals for environmental protection and management. This annual review covers updates in climate change mitigation, environmental...

China’s Energy Conservation and Carbon Emissions Reduction System: Development and Status Quo of the Regulatory and Institutional Framework

Recent literature describing climate change governance at the international level emphasizes the need for more comprehensive domestic action to reduce carbon emissions. To date, China’s voluntary carbon reduction schemes indicate a more...

A Right to a Clean Environment in the Middle East: Opportunities to Embrace or Reject

Following the Stockholm Declaration in 1972 emphasizing an essential need for a clean environment, a number of international proclamations were issued that contributed to international recognition of a substantive right to a clean...

The Development of Payments for Ecosystem Services in China: Cutting Through the Cloud of Confusion Over China’s. Eco-Compensation

Though Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) was initially designed as a voluntary market-oriented mechanism, PES development in China became a top-down, government driven process that is gradually evolving from centralized large-scale...

Overview of the Chinese Legal System

The People’s Republic of China (PRC) was founded in 1949 by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). For almost three decades after the PRC’s establishment, there was a perception that a formal legal system for many areas of national...

China’s Environmental Administrative Enforcement System

This Comment presents an overview of China’s environmental administrative enforcement primarily regarding pollution control. It introduces the institutional framework of China’s environmental enforcement at the national and...