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FWPCA powers and duties

The Clean Water Act TMDL Program V: Aftershock and Prelude

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of redesigning the Clean Water Act's (CWA's) total maximum daily load (TMDL) program.1 Section 303 of the Act requires states and, if necessary,...

Antibacksliding: Understanding One of the Most Misunderstood Provisions of the Clean Water Act

Under the Clean Water Act (CWA), point source dischargers are required to obtain federal discharge permits and to comply with permit limits sufficient to make progress toward the achievement of water quality standards or goals. As water...

TMDLs IV: The Final Frontier

Editors' Summary: The Clean Water Act is undergoing a dramatic shift toward water quality-based regulation. Leading the charge, and taking their share of opposing fire, are the long-dormant provisions of § 303(d) calling for the...

TMDLs III: A New Framework for the Clean Water Act's Ambient Standards Program

Editors' Summary: For the past quarter century, the Clean Water Act has primarily relied on technological standards to abate point source pollution and achieve national clean water goals. Water quality standards lay largely dormant...

TMDLs, Are We There Yet? The Long Road Toward Water Quality-Based Regulation Under the Clean Water Act

Editors' Summary: Water quality standards-based regulation has been the "reserve clause" of the Clean Water Act (CWA), intended to clean up waters that remain polluted after the application of technology standards. For 20 years,...

TMDLs: The Resurrection of Water Quality Standards-Based Regulation Under the Clean Water Act

Editors' Summary: The Clean Water Act (CWA) has rediscovered water quality standards. More accurately, environmentalists have discovered this oldest of pollution control strategies lying dormant in the Act and have litigated it into...

Combined Sewer Overflows and Sanitary Sewer Overflows: EPA's Regulatory Approach and Policy Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

Editors' Summary: Combined sewer overflows and sanitary sewer overlows present unique problems for regulators. Although these problems were largely ignored until recently, EPA has finally begun to address the significant environmental...

Federal Wetlands Law: Part II

Editors' Summary: In this second of a three-part series on federal wetlands law, the author continues her comprehensive review of the current state of federal wetlands laws and regulations. The author first analyzes individual...

Federal Wetlands Law: Part I

Editors' Summary: No single federal law comprehensively addresses wetlands protection. Rather, federal laws and regulations addressing activities and interests in wetlands have evolved with water law in general, and with other laws,...