Jump to Navigation
Jump to Content

Enforcement and Compliance

A New Generation of Environmental Policy: Government-Business Collaboration in Environmental Management

A growing number of business, government, and environmental interest groups have concluded that environmental policy in the United States is inadequate to deal with the complexities of environmental protection in the 21st century. In...

Environmental Enforcement: The Impact of Cultural Values and Attitudes on Social Regulation

The process of protecting the environment is big business. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is now the federal government's largest regulatory agency, with 18,000 employees and a budget of $ 7.8 billion for fiscal year (FY...

The Changing Environmental Management Scene: Federal Policy Impacts the Private and Public Sectors

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) appears to be genuinely interested in promoting the development of environmental management systems (EMSs) for businesses, municipalities, universities and colleges, and other...

How to Minimize Civil Penalties in Environmental Enforcement

Overview

No one voluntarily chooses to become a defendant in environmental litigation. Unfortunately, sometimes bad things happen to good people. Despite a company's excellent commitment to environmental protection, a...

Competing Visions: EPA and the States Battle for the Future of Environmental Enforcement

An important battle is currently taking place over the future direction of environmental enforcement in the United States. The conflict is in part between businesses and government; more fundamentally, however, it is between the U.S....

Conducting Internal Investigations--What to Do and Not Do

The investigation and prosecution of environmental crimes has steadily increased over the past decade.1 Regulatory agencies responsible for overseeing compliance with environmental statutes have become...

Scrutinizing Environmental Enforcement: A Comment on a Recent Discussion at the AALS

For much of the last century, the Association of American Law Schools (AALS) has had a quiet yet significant role in the development of American law. Founded in 1900, the Association is composed of 162 U.S. law schools, each of whose...

Does Environmental Deterrence Work? Evidence and Experience Say Yes, But We Need to Understand How and Why

The principle of deterrence underlies the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's or the Agency's) compliance monitoring and enforcement program.1 It is referenced expressly in virtually every EPA...

Using Auditing, Pollution Prevention, and Management Systems to Craft Superior Environmental Enforcement Solutions

"'Now, that's what I was afraid of!' Porfiry exclaimed hotly and as if involuntarily.

'That's what I was afraid of, that you don't want our reduction.'"

—Fyodor Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment1...

Empirical Research on the Deterrent Effect of Environmental Monitoring and Enforcement

This Article reviews the empirical research on the effectiveness of monitoring and enforcement of environmental policy in deterring individuals and firms from violating environmental laws or achieving an improved level of environmental...