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Criminal Law

Criminal Enforcement of Environmental Laws: Part III--From Investigation to Sentencing and Beyond

Editors' Summary: In this last of a three-part series, the authors provide a "how-to" guide for responding to an environmental criminal investigation and discuss the ramifications of an environmental criminal conviction. They first...

Criminal Enforcement of Environmental Laws: Part II

Editors' Summary: In this second of a three-part series, the authors examine the knowledge element in environmental crimes. They point out that while mens rea—or "guilty knowledge"—is a required element of most criminal offenses, a...

Criminal Enforcement of Environmental Laws--Part I

Editors' Summary: In this first of a three-part series, the authors examine the history and general operation of the federal environmental crimes program. The authors first describe how an effective enforcement program emerged in...

The "Civil" Implications of Environmental Crimes

Editors' Summary: Most federal environmental statutes allow the federal government to bring both civil and criminal enforcement actions against parties engaged in unlawful activities affecting the environment. Many of these statutes...

The Present Use of the Responsible Corporate Officer Doctrine in the Criminal Enforcement of Environmental Laws

Editors' Summary: The responsible corporate officer doctrine establishes that individuals, including management of a legal entity, may be prosecuted as "persons" within the meaning of several federal environmental statutes, if the...