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The Path Not Yet Taken: Bilateral Trade Agreements to Promote Sustainable Biofuels Under the EU Renewable Energy Directive

July 2014

Citation: ELR 10607

Author: C. Johan Westberg and Francis X. Johnson

In order for biofuels to count as renewable energy for transport under the European Union Renewable Energy Directive, most applicants have relied on certification by the European Commission. But bilateral agreements can also be used to meet the sustainability criteria. This Article examines the bilateral agreement option, particularly whether such agreements might provide more flexibility in developing countries that export to the EU, while also addressing more general land use policies and cross-sector linkages in natural resource management.

C. Johan Westberg is Visiting Scholar, and Francis X. Johnson is Senior Research Fellow, at the Stockholm Environment Institute.

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