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Volume 22, Issue 5 — May 1992

Articles

A Clean Air Act Primer: Part III (Chapter 11)

by Theodore L. Garrett and Sonya D. Winner

Editors' Summary: This Article is the third in a three-part series on the Clean Air Act and the 1990 amendments. The authors analyze the new permit program mandated by the 1990 amendments, which requires the creation of a state-administered permit program. The authors also analyze the enforcement mechanisms available under the Clean Air Act that are applicable to stationary sources, and the administrative procedures and judicial review provided for in the Act. The authors analyze the Act's new provisions concerning chemicals that destroy stratospheric ozone, and the new requirements for phasing out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. Finally, the authors explore the legislative history of the 1990 amendments, identifying where possible the sources of statutory text, amendments to that text, and analysis of the various pieces of the legislative history.

A Clean Air Act Primer: Part III (Chapter 12)

by Theodore L. Garrett and Sonya D. Winner

Editors' Summary: This Article is the third in a three-part series on the Clean Air Act and the 1990 amendments. The authors analyze the new permit program mandated by the 1990 amendments, which requires the creation of a state-administered permit program. The authors also analyze the enforcement mechanisms available under the Clean Air Act that are applicable to stationary sources, and the administrative procedures and judicial review provided for in the Act. The authors analyze the Act's new provisions concerning chemicals that destroy stratospheric ozone, and the new requirements for phasing out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. Finally, the authors explore the legislative history of the 1990 amendments, identifying wherepossible the sources of statutory text, amendments to that text, and analysis of the various pieces of the legislative history.

A Clean Air Act Primer: Part III (Chapter 13)

by Theodore L. Garrett and Sonya D. Winner

Editors' Summary: This Article is the third in a three-part series on the Clean Air Act and the 1990 amendments. The authors analyze the new permit program mandated by the 1990 amendments, which requires the creation of a state-administered permit program. The authors also analyze the enforcement mechanisms available under the Clean Air Act that are applicable to stationary sources, and the administrative procedures and judicial review provided for in the Act. The authors analyze the Act's new provisions concerning chemicals that destroy stratospheric ozone, and the new requirements for phasing out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. Finally, the authors explore the legislative history of the 1990 amendments, identifying where possible the sources of statutory text, amendments to that text, and analysis of the various pieces of the legislative history.

A Clean Air Act Primer: Part III (Chapter 14)

by Theodore L. Garrett and Sonya D. Winner

Editors' Summary: This Article is the third in a three-part series on the Clean Air Act and the 1990 amendments. The authors analyze the new permit program mandated by the 1990 amendments, which requires the creation of a state-administered permit program. The authors also analyze the enforcement mechanisms available under the Clean Air Act that are applicable to stationary sources, and the administrative procedures and judicial review provided for in the Act. The authors analyze the Act's new provisions concerning chemicals that destroy stratospheric ozone, and the new requirements for phasing out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. Finally, the authors explore the legislative history of the 1990 amendments, identifying where possible the sources of statutory text, amendments to that text, and analysis of the various pieces of the legislative history.

The "Regulatory Confusion" Defense to Environmental Penalties: Can You Beat the Rap?

by Margaret N. Strand

Editors' Summary: Environmental regulations can be complex and confusing. Even sophisticated companies sometimes have trouble deciphering the regulations. A number of defendants have argued that environmental penalties should be reduced or eliminated when regulations are ambiguous or confusing. In the recent case of Rollins Environmental Services (NJ), Inc. v. EPA, the D.C. Circuit addressed this "regulatory confusion" defense. The court set aside a $ 25,000 penalty for violation of EPA's PCB regulations based on the ambiguity of the regulations. This Article analyzes the Rollins decision and explores how other courts have responded to regulatory confusion claims. The Article also discusses the related issue of how much deference courts give agency interpretations in enforcement actions. The author concludes that Rollins leaves many questions open, but should provide defendants with some foundation for avoiding or mitigating civil penalties where a defendant tries to follow an ambiguous regulation and the government is pursuing an expanded construction of the regulation.

A Clean Air Act Primer: Part III (Chapter 10)

by Theodore L. Garrett and Sonya D. Winner

Editors' Summary: This Article is the third in a three-part series on the Clean Air Act and the 1990 amendments. The authors analyze the new permit program mandated by the 1990 amendments, which requires the creation of a state-administered permit program. The authors also analyze the enforcement mechanisms available under the Clean Air Act that are applicable to stationary sources, and the administrative procedures and judicial review provided for in the Act. The authors analyze the Act's new provisions concerning chemicals that destroy stratospheric ozone, and the new requirements for phasing out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. Finally, the authors explore the legislative history of the 1990 amendments, identifying where possible the sources of statutory text, amendments to that text, and analysis of the various pieces of the legislative history.